Best of breed Controllers for MVC web frameworks

I've been doing a lot of comparisons and research into various Python web frameworks lately, mainly focused on MVC oriented frameworks. Some of them have templating languages they come with, some not so much. The thing I have started to notice is how similar the Controller in them all is starting to look. First though, lets see what they all can do when it comes to the Controller.

For comparison's sake, I'm bringing out some examples using CherryPy, Myghty, Bricks, Aquarium, Ruby on Rails, and Django.

Please note I'm not including frameworks built using any of the ones mentioned as their Controller looks pretty much the same. I'm also not an expert in all these frameworks as I only have so much time in the day, so if I seem vague on something its because I don't know for sure. Feel free to comment (or correct) and clear up any vagueness I express.

Dispatch and Responder Styles

All the frameworks I've mentioned implement a style of object publishing (sometimes referred to as dispatch-style) that maps to the URL coming in. If you have another name you want to call this, go for it, I haven't seen anything consistent on what to call this stuff.

Three different styles seem to exist that make sure an object responds to the URL:

  1. User creates a regular expression to explicitly map a URL to an object (*Explicit Mapping*)
    • (r'^polls/(?P<poll_id>\d+)/vote/$', '') (from Django tutorial)
  2. Object is mapped out according to the URL (*Implicit Mapping*)
    • /admin/login/hello/ —> admin/ (Myghty)
  3. Programmatic rule set determines object that responds (*Programmatic Mapping*)
    • map.connect ‘:controller/:action/:id' (Rails)
    • m.connect(':controller/:action/:id') (Routes)

In the Python world, three different styles also exist for how that object (or function) is defined. The first one is most popular, and is similar to how Rails sets up the Controller. They are:

  1. Create a class inheriting from a Controller object, methods of the class instance are called to respond (*Class-method*)
  2. Create a callable object that responds (*Callable*)
  3. Create a function thats directly called (*Function*)

Note that the last 2 are functionally equivalent for the most part, however a callable object has the typical advantages (or disadvantages) of persistence in some web frameworks, as such if a web framework only shows one of those styles I won't mention the other. Curious what frameworks use what styles from the above two sets?

For this listing, I'll refer to the mapping scenario as dispatch-style and the method for defining the response as the responder-style, also please note that some frameworks support multiple dispatch-styles and responder-styles.


  • Dispatch-Style Mapping ^1^:
    • Explicit, Implicit, Programmatic
  • Responder-Styles:
    • Callable (Though it looks almost exactly like the Class-method style)


  • Dispatch-Style Mapping:
    • Implicit
  • Responder-Styles:
    • Class-method


  • Dispatch-Style Mapping:
    • Explicit (Not with regexp's though, each class is attached off the root to determine what URL leads to it)
  • Responder-Styles:
    • Class-method (Must be explicitly exposed with @cpg.expose)


  • Dispatch-Style Mapping:
    • Explicit
  • Responder-Styles:
    • Function (Packaged in the same module if they're related)


  • Dispatch-Style Mapping ^1^:
    • Explicit, Implicit, (Programmatic with Routes in upcoming 0.99)
  • Responder-Styles:
    • Class-method, Callable, Function


  • Dispatch-Style Mapping ^1^:
    • Programmatic
  • Responder-Styles:
    • Class-method

^1^: User can create custom dispatchers to determine responder object

Who did it first?

If we throw in two more frameworks that utilize CherryPy, like Subway, and TurboGear, we can start to see that using a responder-style of Class-method is pretty popular. What's even more interesting is that all the Class-method Controllers look remarkably similar, and I don't think its because they're copying each other.

The Aquarium project appears to be approximately 4 years old now, but from looking at the mailing list had little or no users until only 2-3 years ago (One poster from 2001 describes his aquarium plants turning brown…). From the sourceforge changelogs, the Controller stuff was added with 1.4 release in 2004. CherryPy has been around for 3+ years and I'm presuming it had the Controller stuff in it from the get-go as it seems a pretty core function of CherryPy. Rails has been out for a year or so, and was used in a form internally for BaseCamp for awhile predating that.

If you really want to trace back this style of Controller, you'd most likely find yourself looking at [STRIKEOUT:Java] Python code (See Phillip J. Eby's comment below). I'm really just trying to point out here, that even if one of these projects saw something they liked from the other, none of them were the originators. They all took a good concept, and implemented it differently, though they've all started to look remarkably similar.

A Controller Line-Up

So lets take a look at some of the examples on the pages of each respective website. Django is the only one that really stands out, as they're not using a Class to contain the methods, rather they're grouping them as plain functions inside a module.


class BaseController(Controller):

    def call(self, callNext, *args, **kargs):
        “”“Save a reference to myself in ctx.controller.”“”
        self._ctx.controller = self
        callNext(*args, **kargs)

    def doMessageAddAction(self):
        “”“Add a new message.
        ...does a bunch of stuff…

I mentioned that it was Callable but functioned in a way like a Class-method. This appears to be because Aquarium puts a context and maybe other initialization stuff per request in the __call__ bit, then has it actually calls a different method to respond.


from bricks.controller.crud import CRUDfrom bricks import user

    class Test(CRUD): 
        # Override the default delete() method
        def delete(self, rowid):
            return CRUD.delete(self, rowid)
        delete.expose = user(level=1, app='app')

        controller = Test('todo')

Bricks adds an interesting ability here by attaching function attributes to indicate what authorization is needed to execute the function called. Some of the other frameworks shown here do similar things through function decorators.


from cherrypy import cpg

    class HelloWorld:
        def index(self):
            return “Hello world!” = True

    cpg.root = HelloWorld()

Notice that the class instance is attached to the location off cpg.root thats desired. To map a URL to a class instance farther down, say under /booga instead of /, you'd do that last line like so: cpg.root.booga = HelloWorld()

Pretty handy I think, and it beats writing regular expressions (though doesn't appear as flexible). One of the reasons I prefer the Programmatic dispatch-style. Moving on..


from django.core.extensions import get_object_or_404, render_to_responsefrom django.models.polls import choices, pollsfrom django.utils.httpwrappers import HttpResponseRedirect

    def vote(request, poll_id):
        p = get_object_or_404(polls, pk=poll_id)
        ... does a bunch more stuff to use Django-supplied functionality…

If you imagined the functions inside a class, instead of a module, it'd look rather similar to the others….


class HelloWorld:
    def doit(self, m, **params):
        m.write(“hello world!”)

helloworld = HelloWorld()

At this point, the similarity between Bricks, CherryPy, and Myghty should be pretty obvious. Aquarium is close as well, while Django is only a wee farther from what's appearing to be the norm.


class HelloController < ApplicationController
    def index
        return render :text => "hello world!"

Doesn't look too different from some of our Python MVC frameworks…

What it All Means

I have no idea. Really, I just thought it was fascinating that these different frameworks started looking so similar. Some of them have been incredibly similar before others, but obviously these approaches catch on and find themselves adopted into other frameworks.

I do start to wonder at what point they'll be similar enough that the barrier to switching web frameworks is narrowed down to only a few dozen lines of code to change here and there. Sure, going to/from Rails is going to be tough as that also means a language change, but for Python programmers tempted by a feature a different web framework offers I won't be surprised to see more people hopping back and forth.

With regard to the Python web frameworks, none of them appear to agree on a template language. Several of them use Cheetah, some use Myghty's template abilities, one uses Kid, and several of them have their very own template language.

It's also interesting to consider whether or not having more possible dispatch/responder styles is beneficial or detrimental to the popularity of a specific framework. Rails creator David Hansson purposely includes only one style for each as he emphasizes with a concept known as convention over configuration. He provides defaults for pretty much everything, and following conventions makes it easier to write code as it enforces a consistent programming and naming style. I can't help but notice that of the frameworks I mentioned above, the ones with less (apparent) options and better defaults tend to have more users (With the exception of Bricks as its still in alpha).

You might have noticed I designated Rails as being capable of user-programmed dispatching. While Rails uses its routes system by default, the thing people miss is that they're just defaults. You can get in there and totally alter the way it works if you want, Ruby doesn't completely close classes so you could just re-open them and override any aspect of its dispatch system you like.

I think this a valuable lesson that some of the more “verbose” examples above might want to consider. If there's lines of code in a controller that you have to put in there every-time, find a way to make it the default case so that boiler-plate isn't needed. It only needs to be a default, an advanced programmer will know how to override it should they need to. There's obvious limitations to this since things work differently in Python, but there's still Python ways to do it in a way that feels “right”.

For the Python Web Frameworks I missed

I know, I didn't cover SkunkWeb, Spyce, Snaklets, Webware and more. Please feel free to add the relevant information regarding your framework in the comments. It'd be helpful if you could indicate what Dispatch-Styles and -Responder-Styles your framework supports.

If I failed to properly cover one of the above frameworks, bringing that to my attention is most appreciated.

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Ben Bangert
Ben Bangert
Software Contriver

Code. Homebrew. Hike. Rollerblade.